Science

Have scientists at Harvard and MIT found a cure for obesity?

Snipping out bad DNA code could prevent or even cure obesity in those people with a faulty gene, say scientists from two top US universities

Embargoed to 2330 Tuesday July 21 File photo dated 22/11/06 of a patient undergoing a blood sugar test for diabetes as drinking sugary drinks could be causing nearly 8,000 cases of type 2 diabetes a year, according to research. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Tuesday July 21, 2015. A study led by the University of Cambridge found sugar-sweetened drinks could give rise to 1.8 million diabetes cases over 10 years in the United States and 79,000 in the UK. Academics analysed studies carried out in both the US and UK as they had the most data available, and found sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed by 54.4% and 49.4% of people in each country respectively. They concluded that regular consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be linked to 2-6% of type 2 diabetes cases in the UK, and 4-13% in the US. This was independent of individuals obesity status. Sugar-sweetened beverages were defined as any sweetened beverages, including sugar-sweetened fruit juice, not presented as diet or non-caloric beverages. See PA story HEALTH Sugar. Photo credit should read: Hugo Philpott/PA Wire

A cure for obesity could be just an injection away after scientists at Harvard and MIT discovered that a tiny DNA tweak causes the metabolism to burn up excess fat.

Although it was thought that piling on the pounds was largely due to overeating and lack of exercise, researchers now think that genetics play a crucial role in whether fat is stored or used up as energy.

People with higher BMIs (Body Mass Index) often carry a variant of the FTO gene, which has been dubbed the ‘obesity gene.’

Now researchers at Harvard and MIT have discovered that the ‘obesity gene’ switches on two other genes which stop fat being burned up as heat – a process called thermogenesis.

And, crucially they have shown it is possible to turn off those genes using a ground breaking gene editing technique which snips out bad DNA code and replaces it with the correct sequence.
The scientists believe the technique could prevent or even cure obesity in those people with the faulty gene and negate the effects of a high-fat diet.

“Obesity has traditionally been seen as the result of an imbalance between the amount of food we eat and how much we exercise, but this view ignores the contribution of genetics to each individual’s metabolism,” said senior author Professor Manolis Kellis, of MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) and of the Broad Institute.

“Knowing the causal variant underlying the obesity association may allow genome editing as a therapeutic avenue for individuals as risk.

“By manipulating this new pathway, we could switch between energy storage and energy dissipation providing new hope for a cure against obesity.”

In Britain, 25 per cent of adults are obese — 12 million people — compared with fewer than three per cent in the Seventies. The proportion is predicted to grow to one in three by 2030 and more than half by 2050.

Weight gain is a risk factor for many health problems, including diabetes, heart disease, stroke and some cancers. Obesity and diabetes already costs the UK over £5 billion every year which is likely to rise to £50 billion in the next 36 years.

To test the theory that a faulty gene was driving weight gain, researchers gathered fat samples from Europeans carrying both the ‘obesity’ variant and a normal copy of the FTO gene.

They found that in people with the variant one letter of DNA code had been replaced by another. The wrong code was causing genes IRX3 and IRX5 to turn on when they should have been off.

 

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