Apologetics Classes

Apologetics Session 1: The Bible: Every Detail by Deliberate Design

Much of the content originally produced by Koinonia Institute .

Not only is the bible a cohesive narrative, but every phrase, every word, and every letter is there by deliberate design. This is more miraculous when one considers that the writers were thousands of years apart from different background, apart of different cultures, spoke and wrote different languages, and crossed all walks of the socioeconomic spectrum. It was penned by Hebraic and Greek scholars, fisherman, Princes of Egypt, shepards, Hebrew Kings, and even Pagan Kings. The Old Testament was written over a 1,000 year period and the New Testament was written over a lifetime.

Don’t believe anything I say, check it out for yourself.

Can you name this famous story before reading who the author is at the end? This will demonstrate a powerful defense on the integrity of the Hebrew Old Testament at the end of this lesson.

When April’s gentle rains have pierced the drought Of March right to the root, and bathed each sprout Through every vein with liquid of such power It brings forth the engendering of the flower; When Zephyrus too with his sweet breath has blown  Through every field and forest, urging on The tender shoots, and there’s a youthful sun, His second half course through the Ram now run, And little birds are making melody And sleep all night, eyes open as can be (So Nature pricks them in each little heart),

The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer written in the late 1300s.

The current Hebrew Alphabet. Hebrew reads from right to left, so the first letter, Aleph, is in the top right. Each letter not only represents a sound, but each has a concept (or a few concepts) behind them. For instance, Aleph means Ox, Strength, or Leader. Hey means Look! Behold! Breath, Wind, or Breze. Et al.

This was the Hebrew language before 300 BC when Jews began to use the stylized “square” from the Aramaic alphabet. Note that Nun, which means seed, looks like a sperm cell. This was 2,000 years before sperm cells were discovered in 1677 by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. Another observation is the Tau, the last letter in the alphabet (Hebrew by the way from Aleph and Bet) is a cross and it means mark, sign, or covenant.

The cross of the Tau was changed in Babylon to more closely resemble its current form.

MeNe, MeNe,  TeKeL, PeReS.  In Aramaic and Hebrew, vowels are absent and must be inferred. In Daniel 5 we had the famous handwriting on the wall incident. Peres was previously rendered “upharsin”: “u” is Aramaic for “and”; “pharsin” is the plural form of “peres.”  It means “broken” or “divided.”

(By implying a different vowel, “paras” rather than “peres,” this also becomes a play on words: paras was the word for Persia.)

This makes Hebrew a language where puns can be employed based on which vowels are inferred. Koine Greek, the language of New Testament, is the polar opposite. It is an extremely precise language. Sometimes several sentences in English are needed to convey the meaning of one Greek verb.

These verses are prophecies about the Hebrew Language. It was only spoken in Jesus’ day like the Roman Catholic Church uses Latin today. It was a “dead” language only spoken in sacred liturgies. They spoke Aramaic, and wrote in Greek. But on 13 October 1881, while in Paris, Ben Yehuda began speaking Hebrew with friends in what is believed to be the first modern conversation using the language. Later that year, he made aliyah and came to live in Jerusalem. If you brought back Isaiah to Jerusalem today, he would be comfortable walking around since he would be able to read all of the signs.

In Hebrew, this means he filled them with his spirit.

Adama means dirt. Add the H and you get the spirit of God in dirt which made the first man.

Seth – “For God hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew.“ (Gen 4:25)

Enosh – From the root anash which means to be uncurable, used of a wound, grief, woe, sickness

Kenan – Balaam used a pun to name the Kenites when he prophesies about their destruction (Numbers 24:21, 23)

We have no real idea why these names were chosen. Most assume they refer to circumstances at birth.

Mahalalel –  Mahalal which means blessed or praise; and El, the name for God

Apparently, Enoch received the prophecy of the Great Flood, and was told that as long as his son was alive, the judgment of the flood would be withheld. The year that Methuselah died, the flood came.

Now, read all of the meanings of their names like a sentence.

Now let’s move on to the 12 Tribes of Israel. Here are a few examples of how they got their names and their respective meanings.

I tried getting these names to make a sentence in Genesis, but there’s no list that is coherent.

Until you get to Revelation 7. Keep in mind that these two texts by Moses and John were separated by 1,600 years and use completely different languages.

You are never going to convince me that Jewish Rabbis encoded Christian theology into the venerated Torah more than 1,500 years before Jesus was born.

Ever wonder why God takes the time to spell out the numbers of all the tribes? Turns out, there may be a very good reason, and it all points to Jesus.

Remember, they had to travel just as they had camped.

This is what they layout would most likely look like. Each of the four Tribe leads would camp in their cardinal direction, but only the width of the camp of the Levites, who were in the middle. It helps to think like a Jew, who were meticulous for following exact instructions. If they camped with all of this in mind, this would be what the Israeli Camp would look like from the air:

So this would be marching around for 40 years in the wilderness. Jesus is in the middle. Jesus is always in the middle it turns out. Jesus also was tempted in the wilderness for 40 days.

Genesis and Exodus each have an ELS sequence of 49 letters that spells out TORH (Hebrew for the Torah). Numbers and Deuteronomy also each have a sequence of 49 letters that spell (HROT) (Torah backwards). And Leviticus has a 7 letter sequence that spells out YHVH. The Torah always points to YHVH and YHVH points to Jesus, as we’ll see at the end of this presentation. Is this proof of God? Maybe, but it is quite irrefutable. The attribute is there. What you conclude from it is up to you.

Jesus gives a rousing message about the good shepherd, and then proceeds to Temple where he is confronted by the Jewish leadership.
But there’s this strange verse that bridges the two events. Why do I care that it’s winter? Turns out, every detail is by design. Let’s dig here and see what we can find.

Turns out, this shows that Jesus was celebrating Hanukkah.

After this, they traveled from Mount Hor along the caravan route by way of the Sea of Reeds and went around the land of Edom. But when the people got impatient because it was a long route, the people complained against the Lord and Moses. “Why did you bring us out of Egypt to die in the wilderness?” they asked. “There’s no food and water, and we’re tired of this worthless bread.”

In response, the Lord sent poisonous serpents among the people to bite them. As a result, many people of Israel died. Then the people approached Moses and admitted, “We’ve sinned by speaking against the Lord and you. Pray to the Lord, that he’ll remove the serpents from us.” So Moses prayed in behalf of the people.

Then the Lord instructed Moses, “Make a poisonous serpent out of brass and fasten it to a pole. Anyone who has been bitten and who looks at it will live.” So Moses made a bronze serpent and fastened it to a pole. If a person who had been bitten by a poisonous serpent looked to the serpent, he lived. (Numbers 21)


This goes 1,530 years with zero explanation. Until the verse before the most famous verse in the bible.

Remember the Ox, Man, Eagle, and Lion from the Numbers 2 Encampment Orders? That same pattern shows up in the most interesting places, including Ezekiel as he describes the hyper-dimensional Cherubim in Ezekiel 10 and here lying underneath the design of the Gospels.

See Jeconiah there in Matthew’s line? Matthew follows the lineage of Jesus on his fraternal side down the royal line. But we run into a slight problem with Jeconiah.

Well…That’s awkward. How is the Messiah to come from this line now?

The answer is found in Numbers 27.

Now the daughters of Hepher’s son Zelophehad, Gilead’s grandson, who had been fathered by Machir, who had been fathered by Manasseh, from the tribe of Manasseh, the direct son of Joseph, were named Mahlah, Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah. They approached Moses, Eleazar the priest, the elders, and the entire community at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting, stood before them, and said, “Our father died in the wilderness, but he wasn’t with the company of those who gathered against the Lord along with the company of Korah. He died in his own sin, and he had no sons. Why are you going to eliminate the name of our father from his family, just because he had no son? Give us a possession from among our father’s relatives.”

So Moses brought the family into the Lord’s presence, and the Lord told Moses, “The daughters of Zelophehad are telling the truth. You are certainly to give to them a possession for an inheritance among their father’s relatives. You are to pass on the inheritance of their father to them. Tell the Israelis that when a man dies without a son, you are to pass his inheritance to his daughter. If he doesn’t have a daughter, give his inheritance to his brothers. 10 If he doesn’t have brothers, give his inheritance to his father’s brothers. 11 If his father doesn’t have brothers, then give his inheritance to a relative who is nearest to him from the family and he’ll take possession of it. This is to be a permanent ordinance[a] for the Israelis, just as the Lord commanded Moses.”3.

This allows Mary’s father, Heli, to adopt Joseph (nomizo, as reckoned by law) and the virgin birth gets around the blood curse that God placed on Jeconiah.

Sometimes, what’s not in the bible can be extremely important. For instance, nowhere in the New Testament does it talk about the destruction of Jerusalem. This is helpful because it helps narrow down when the letters and gospels were Most Likely written, which is before 70 A.D.

Keeping that in mind, let’s check out Genesis 22:

Sometime later, God tested Abraham. He called out to him, “Abraham!”

“Here I am!” he answered.

God[a] said, “Please take your son, your unique son whom you love—Isaac—and go to the land of Moriah. Offer him as a burnt offering there on one of the mountains that I will point out to you.”

So Abraham got up early in the morning, saddled his donkey, and took two of his male servants[b] with him, along with his son Isaac. He cut the wood for the burnt offering and set out to go to the place about which God had spoken to him. On the third day he looked ahead and saw the place from a distance.

Abraham ordered his two servants,[c] “Both of you are to stay here with the donkey. Now as for the youth and me, we’ll go up there, we’ll worship, and then we’ll return to you.” Then Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering and placed it on his son Isaac. Abraham[d] carried the fire and the knife. And so the two of them went on together.

Abraham Answers Isaac’s Question

Isaac addressed his father Abraham: “My father!”

“I’m here, my son,” Abraham replied.

Isaac asked, “The fire and the wood are here, but where’s the lamb for the burnt offering?”

Abraham answered, “God will provide[e] himself the lamb for the burnt offering, my son.”

The two of them went on together and came to the place about which God had spoken. Abraham built an altar there, arranged the wood, tied up his son Isaac, and placed him on the altar on top of the wood. 10 Then he stretched out his hand and grabbed the knife to slaughter his son.

The Angel of the Lord Intervenes

11 Just then, an angel of the Lord called out to him from heaven and said, “Abraham! Abraham!”

“Here I am,” he answered.

12 “Don’t lay your hand on the youth!” he said. “Don’t do anything to him, because I’ve just demonstrated[f] that you fear God, since you have not withheld your son, your only unique one, from me.”

13 Then Abraham looked up and behind him to see a ram caught by its horns in the thicket. So Abraham went over, grabbed the ram, and offered it as a burnt offering in place of his son. 14 Abraham named that place, “The Lord Will Provide,”[g] as it is told this day, “On the Lord’s mountain, he will provide.”[h]

15 The angel of the Lord called to Abraham a second time from heaven 16 and said, “I have taken an oath to swear by myself,” declares the Lord, “that since you have carried this out and have not withheld your only unique[i] son, 17 I will certainly bless you and make your descendants as numerous as the stars in heaven and as the sand on the seashore. Your descendants will take possession of the gates[j] of their enemies. 18 Furthermore, through your descendants all the nations of the earth will be blessed,[k] because you have obeyed my command.”

19 After this, Abraham returned to his servants[l] and they set out together for Beer-sheba, where Abraham settled.

Abraham offered Isaac right there on the peak of Mount Moriah. You see in the above slide a picture of my mom and myself on the Mount of Olives, overlooking the threshing floor of Arunah where the Dome of the Rock currently resides. The Peak sits at 777 meters above sea level and 2,000 years later, God would provide Himself the sacrifice for our sins on that very spot, Golgotha.

Where is Isaac? He is deliberately edited out of the text and the next time you see him he is looking up to get his Gentile Bride (Rebekah) who was found by the unnamed Servant, a type of Holy Spirit. (Eliazar – Comforter)

Genesis 24 62 Later on, as Isaac was returning one evening from Beer-lahai-roi[ae](he had been living in the Negev[af]), 63 Isaac[ag] went out walking[ah] in a field. He looked up, and all of a sudden there were some camels coming. 64 Rebekah looked up, and when she saw Isaac, she quickly dismounted from her camel 65 and asked the servant, “Who is that man coming in the field to meet us?”

Remember our story from Chaucer at the beginning? Let’s compare 700 years of English to Hebrew.

The Old Testament that we use today is translated from what is called the Masoretic Text. The Masoretes were Jewish scholars who between A.D. 500 and 950 gave the Old Testament the form that we use today. Until the Dead Sea Scrolls were found in 1947, the oldest Hebrew text of the Old Testament was the Masoretic Aleppo Codex which dates to A.D. 935.

With the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls, we now had manuscripts that predated the Masoretic Text by about one thousand years. Scholars were anxious to see how the Dead Sea documents would match up with the Masoretic Text. If a significant amount of differences were found, we could conclude that our Old Testament Text had not been well preserved.

After much research, scholars found that the two texts were practically identical. Most variants were minor spelling differences, and none affected the meaning of the text.

One of the most respected Old Testament scholars, the late Gleason Archer, examined the two Isaiah scrolls found in Cave 1 and wrote, “Even though the two copies of Isaiah discovered in Qumran Cave 1 near the Dead Sea in 1947 were a thousand years earlier than the oldest dated manuscript previously known (A.D. 980), they proved to be word for word identical with our standard Hebrew Bible in more than 95 percent of the text. The five percent of variation consisted chiefly of obvious slips of the pen and variations in spelling.”
25,608 words.

Why was it so accurate? Because of Gematria. Each letter also represented a number. They went by ones up until Kaf, which then went by tens until Rayah, which then went by 100s. When scribes would copy the texts, they would copy a section, then add up the numbers on the original and add up the numbers on the copy. If the numbers didn’t match, they threw the copy away.

Every word in the bible points to Jesus. Even the very name of God.

The name of God shouts through time and space across the ages to you. It says, “Hand, Look! Nail, Look! That’s my Son! By Him all things were made! In Him all things consist! He lived the perfect life and I turned my back on Him so that you MIGHT live!”

Every phrase, every word, and every letter in the bible is there by deliberate design. And discovering that for yourself will be the greatest adventure you will ever have.

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